Multithreading Options


Set the number of threads for input queue runners and preprocessing tasks. Using more threads won't accelerate training or inference, but if you're using a GPU then you should make sure that you're using enough threads that no single thread is running at 100% load if possible.

Note that all pre-trained networks operate with only one thread to avoid random orderings due to threading.

Learning Hyperparameters

All Models


Sets the number of examples in each mini-batch. Defaults to 1. Recall that smaller batches mean more gradient updates per epoch.


Sets the number of epochs to train to before stopping. An epoch is one full cycle through the entire training set.


Set the initial learning rate. Defaults to 0.001. If you're not sure what learning rate is appropriate, err on the side of a smaller learning rate.


Set the optimization algorithm to use. Default is 'Adam'. Other options are 'SGD' (Stochastic Gradient Descent), 'Adadelta', and 'Adagrad'.

set_learning_rate_decay(decay_factor, epochs_per_decay)

Manually anneal the learning rate every epochs_per_decay epochs. This isn't necessary for gradient-adaptive optimizers like 'Adam'.


Set the coefficient for L2 weight decay (regularization).


Set the weight initialization scheme for convolutional and fully connected layers. Default is 'xavier', other option is 'normal'. Note that you may experience gradient problems with relu activations and xavier initialization.


Set the ratio of the total number of samples to use as a testing set after training. Defaults to 0.10 (i.e. 10% of the samples).


Set the ratio of the total number of samples to use as a validation set during training. Defaults to 0.10 (i.e. 10% of the samples).


Sets the loss function to be used by the model during training and testing. The supported loss functions vary with the specific problem type/Model:

  • ClassificationModel: softmax cross entropy only
  • RegressionModel: l2, l1, smooth l1, and log loss
  • SemanticSegmentationModel: sigmoid cross entropy only
  • ObjectDetectionModel: yolo only
  • CountCeptionModel: l1 only
  • HeatmapObjectCountingModel: sigmoid cross entropy only

Regression Models Only


Sets the number of response variables for the regression model.

Object Detection Models Only

                    anchors=[[159, 157], [103, 133], [91, 89], [64, 65], [142, 101]])

Sets several parameters needed for the Yolo-based object detector.

  • Yolo splits images into a grid and makes bounding box predictions in each grid square.grid_size defines the number of grid squares along the image width and height. Defaults to [7,7].
  • class_list is a list of names for possible object classes in images. This defaults to a single 'plant' class. (DPP currently only supports one class at a time)
  • anchors defines the widths and heights of anchors/prior boxes which the bounding box predictions use as a basis for detecting objects of various sizes and aspect ratios. The five anchors listed above are the default values and should be fine for most detectors.

Sets the Intersection-over-Union (IoU) thresholds internally used by the YOLO model to detect objects and calculate average precision. thresh_sig controls the minimum IoU for taking a detection as significant, thresh_overlap controls the minimum IoU for overlapping detections (at which point only the more confidant one is taken), and thresh_correct controls the minimum IoU for saying a detection is correct during validation and testing.

Heatmap Object Counting Models Only


Sets the standard deviation used for gaussians when generating ground truth heatmaps from point locations of objects. See the heatmap dataset loader for more info.

Input Options

set_image_dimensions(image_height, image_width, image_depth)

Specify the image dimensions for images in the dataset, taking depth as the number of channels. These will be the dimensions you want to resize to if you're using set_resize_images() or set_crop_or_pad_images().

set_original_image_dimensions(image_height, image_width)

Specify the original size of the image, before resizing. This is only needed in special cases; for instance, you would use this if you are resizing input images but using image coordinate labels which reference the original size.


Add pre-processors. For more information see the documentation for pre-processors.


Resize images by either cropping or padding them, as opposed to plain resizing.


Up-sample or down-sample images to specified size.


Set the location to save processed images when pre-processing is used.

Data Augmentation Options


Randomly flip training images horizontally.


Randomly flip training images vertically.

set_augmentation_crop(True, crop_ratio)

Randomly crop images during training, and crop images to their center during testing. The size of the crop is specified by crop_ratio, and defaults to 0.75 (i.e. 75% of the original image).


Randomly adjust the contrast and/or brightness on training images.

set_augmentation_rotation(True, crop_borders=False)

Randomly rotate training images by any angle within 0-360 degrees (for classification and regression tasks). Parts of the image may get rotated outside of the image after rotation. By default, this will also leave black borders around the image. Setting crop_borders to True will perform a centre crop to remove the black borders generated by rotation.

A warning on using centre cropping with rotation augmentation: In order to maintain similar feature scales between images, the cropping uses the tightest possible crop required for any given image to remove black borders (i.e. the crop required for 45 degree rotation). This will crop out at least 50% of the image (more for higher aspect ratios). If using this, ensure that the main content of the images is in the centre.

load_training_augmentation_dataset_from_directory_with_csv_labels(dirname, labels_file, column_number, id_column_number)

Load a second set of images with corresponding labels in a csv file to augment the training set with. This is a good option if your chosen augmentation is not listed above - you can create the augmented examples yourself and load them with this function. column_number should have the label and id_column_number should have the filename.

set_patch_size(height=128, width=128)

Train on randomly extracted patches (of size heightxwidth) of the original images. Testing is then performed by splitting the image into patches of heightxwidth, passing the patches individually through the network, and then stitching the results back together to form the full image.